Jinn in the Bible

Jinn

Jinn (Photo credit: slimemold9)

Relationship of King Solomon and the genies

According to traditions, the jinn stood behind the learned humans in Solomon’s court, who in turn, sat behind the prophets. The jinn remained in the service of Solomon, who had placed them in bondage, and had ordered them to perform a number of tasks.

And before Solomon were marshalled his hosts,- of jinn and men and birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks.” (Quran 27:17)

The Qurʾan relates that Solomon died while he was leaning on his staff. As he remained upright, propped on his staff, the jinn thought he was still alive and supervising them, so they continued to work. They realized the truth only when Allah sent a creature to crawl out of the ground and gnaw at Solomon’s staff until his body collapsed. The Qurʾan then comments that if they had known the unseen, they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment of being enslaved.

Then, when We decreed (Solomon’s) death, nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when he fell down, the jinn saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating penalty (of their task).” (Qurʾan 34:14)

Difference in perception of jinn between East and West

There is a significant difference in how these beings are perceived in East (as jinn) and in West (as genies). Western natives moving to Eastern countries may experience a bout of culture shock when they are confronted with the perceived presence of jinn by people who believe in them, and two good examples of the struggle to adapt to a culture which believes in jinn are The Caliph’s House and In Arabian Nights by Tahir Shah, which describe his family’s experiences in moving from London to a supposedly jinn-inhabited home in Morocco.

Existence and usage of jinn in other cultures

Genie in Legoland.

In Guanche mythology from Tenerife in the Canary Islands, there existed the belief in beings that are similar to genies[improper synthesis?], such as the maxios ordioses paredros (‘attendant gods’, domestic and nature spirits) and tibicenas (evil genies), as well as the demon Guayota (aboriginal god of evil) that, like the Arabic ʾIblīs, is sometimes identified with a genie.[28]

Jinn in the Bible

In Judeo-Christian tradition, the word or concept of jinn as such does not occur in the original Hebrew text of the Bible, but the Arabic word ǧinn is often used in several old Arabic translations.

In several verses in those Arabic translations, the words jinn (جن), jann (الجان al-Ǧānn), majnoon (مجنون Maǧnūn), and Iblīs (إبلیس) are mentioned as translations offamiliar spirit or אוב (ob) for jann and the devil or δαιμόνιον (daimónion) for Iblīs.

In Van Dyck‘s Arabic translation of the Bible, these words are mentioned in Leviticus 19:31, Lev 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3, 1 Sa 28:9, 1 Sa 28:7, 1 Chronicles 10:13,Gospel of Matthew 4:1, Mat 12:22, Gospel of Luke 4:5, Luk 8:12, Gospel of John 8:44 and other verses[citation needed] as well. Also, in the apocryphal bookTestament of Solomon, Solomon describes particular demons whom he enslaved to help build the temple, the questions he put to them about their deeds and how they could be thwarted, and their answers, which provide a kind of self-help manual against demonic activity.

Protection from jinn

An amulet, talisman or what is referred to as a tawiz in Sufi circles is a form of protection against many forms of spiritual evil, including protection against the jinn. It is often worn around the neck in a pouch, close to the heart. One such popular amulet was said to have been given to Sheikh Abdullah Daghistani by Muhammad in a vision. In that vision he was instructed to give this amulet to people as a protection for them in the last days. The amulet contains a depiction of the Throne Room of Allah. The amulet contains theosophic names as well as the names of folk saints. It is widely held to be very miraculous and a protection to those who submit to Allah.[citation needed] It is to be noted that Muslims believe that all protection and help only comes from Allah, as it is a central Islamic tenet to believe that there is no power nor might save God’s. Often, these sorts of practices are not widespread in the Islamic world and are mostly limited to certain tribal communities in remote areas. The Muslim faithful believe that reciting the Verse of the Throne (Qurʾan 2:255) and the final three concise chapters of the Qurʾan (chapters 112-114) are the most effective means of seeking protection from satanic whispers and evil creatures.

Popular culture

  • In Neil Gaiman‘s novel American Gods, a salesman discontented with his life has a sexual encounter with a jinni (specifically, an ‘ifrit) who is working as a taxi driver in New York.
  • In the popular online MMORPG AdventureQuest Worlds, the Middle Eastern-themed zone the Sandsea Desert features a Djinn Chaos Lord named Tibicenas, as well as a Djinn realm which the player can explore.
  • In Clash of the Titans the Djinn leader heals Perseus of a wound and aids his band in their battle against the gods.
  • I Dream of Jeannie‘ is a 1960′s television show starring Larry Hagman & Barbara Eden as a beautiful but incorrigible genie rescued by an Air Force pilot, Major Anthony Nelson (Hagman) who constantly gets him into trouble with her magic.

See also

The Class of Jinn :

  • Nasnas (the first race of jinns in the earth)
  • Shayṭān (Troops of Shayṭān headed by Iblis)
  • Ifrit (a class of infernal jinn)

The other appellation of Jinn :

References

  1. ^ Qur’ān 15:27
  2. ^ Qur’ān 55:31
  3. ^ El-Zein, Amira. “Jinn,” 420-421, in Meri, Joseph W.Medieval Islamic Civilization – An Encyclopedia.
  4. ^ Wehr, Hans (1994). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (4 ed.). Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-87950-003-0.
  5. ^ Edward William Lane’s Arabic Lexicon
  6. ^ Hoyland, R. G., Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam.
  7. ^ Quran 55:14–15
  8. ^ Quran 116:4–4
  9. ^ Quran 51:56–56
  10. ^ Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb al-Ṭabarī, Tuḥfat al-gharā’ib, I, p. 68; Abū al-Futūḥ Rāzī, Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān, pp. 193, 341
  11. ^ TafsīrBakhsh az tafsīr-e kohan, p. 181; Loeffler, p. 46
  12. ^ Ṭūsī, p. 484; Fozūnī, p. 527
  13. ^ Fozūnī, p. 526
  14. ^ Fozūnī, pp. 525–526
  15. ^ Kolaynī, I, p. 396; Solṭān-Moḥammad, p. 62
  16. ^ Mīhandūst, p. 44
  17. ^ Abu’l-Fotūḥ, XVII, pp. 280–281
  18. a b Ibn Taymiyyahal-Furqān bayna awliyā’ al-Raḥmān wa-awliyā’ al-Shayṭān (“Essay on the Jinn”), translated by Abu Ameenah Bilal Phillips
  19. ^ Quran 72:1–2
  20. ^ Quran 15:18–18
  21. ^ Sahih Muslim, No. 2714
  22. ^ http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/arabian/bl-arabian-jinni.htm
  23. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/53819003/47/Maruf-the-Cobbler
  24. ^ http://www.wollamshram.ca/1001/Vol_10/tale169.htm
  25. ^ http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/arabian/bl-arabian-alladin.htm
  26. ^ http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/arabian/bl-arabian-nuraldin.htm
  27. ^ Kubai, Anne (April 2007). “Walking a Tightrope: Christians and Muslims in Post-Genocide Rwanda”. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations (Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group) 18(2): 219–235. doi:10.1080/09596410701214076.
  28. ^ Guanche Religion
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article byintroducing more precise citations. (June 2012)
  • Al-Ashqar, Dr. Umar Sulaiman (1998). The World of the Jinn and Devils. Boulder, CO: Al-Basheer Company for Publications and Translations.
  • Barnhart, Robert K. The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. 1995.
  • “Genie”. The Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, 1989.
  • Abu al-Futūḥ Rāzī, Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān IX-XVII (pub. so far), Tehran, 1988.
  • Moḥammad Ayyūb Ṭabarī, Tuḥfat al-gharā’ib, ed. J. Matīnī, Tehran, 1971.
  • A. Aarne and S. ThompsonThe Types of the Folktale, 2nd rev. ed., Folklore Fellows Communications 184, Helsinki, 1973.
  • Abu’l-Moayyad Balkhī, Ajā’eb al-donyā, ed. L. P. Smynova, Moscow, 1993.
  • A. Christensen, Essai sur la Demonologie iranienne, Det. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser, 1941.
  • R. Dozy, Supplément aux Dictionnaires arabes, 3rd ed., Leyden, 1967.
  • H. El-Shamy, Folk Traditions of the Arab World: A Guide to Motif Classification, 2 vols., Bloomington, 1995.
  • Abū Bakr Moṭahhar Jamālī Yazdī, Farrokh-nāma, ed. Ī. Afshār, Tehran, 1967.
  • Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammad Kolaynī, Ketāb al-kāfī, ed. A. Ghaffārī, 8 vols., Tehran, 1988.
  • Edward William Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, Beirut, 1968.
  • L. Loeffler, Islam in Practice: Religious Beliefs in a Persian Village, New York, 1988.
  • U. Marzolph, Typologie des persischen Volksmärchens, Beirut, 1984. Massé, Croyances.
  • M. Mīhandūst, Padīdahā-ye wahmī-e dīrsāl dar janūb-e Khorāsān, Honar o mordom, 1976, pp. 44–51.
  • T. Nöldeke “Arabs (Ancient),” in J. Hastings, ed., Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics I, Edinburgh, 1913, pp. 659–73.
  • S. Thompson, Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, rev. ed., 6 vols., Bloomington, 1955.
  • S. Thompson and W. Roberts, Types of Indic Oral Tales, Folklore Fellows Communications 180, Helsinki, 1960.
  • Solṭān-Moḥammad ibn Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan Esterābādī, Toḥfat al-majāles, Tehran.
  • Moḥammad b. Maḥmūd Ṭūsī, Ajāyeb al-makhlūqāt va gharā’eb al-mawjūdāt, ed. M. Sotūda, Tehran, 1966.

Further reading

  • Crapanzano, V. (1973) The Hamadsha: a study in Moroccan ethnopsychiatry. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
  • Drijvers, H. J. W. (1976) The Religion of Palmyra. Leiden, Brill.
  • El-Zein, Amira (2009) Islam, Arabs, and the intelligent world of the Jinn. Contemporary Issues in the Middle East. Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-3200-9.
  • El-Zein, Amira (2006) “Jinn”. In: J. F. Meri ed. Medieval Islamic civilization – an encyclopedia. New York and Abingdon, Routledge, pp. 420–421.
  • Goodman, L.E. (1978) The case of the animals versus man before the king of the Jinn: A tenth–century ecological fable of the pure brethren of Basra. Library of Classical Arabic Literature, vol. 3. Boston, Twayne.
  • Maarouf, M. (2007) Jinn eviction as a discourse of power: a multidisciplinary approach to Moroccan magical beliefs and practices. Leiden, Brill.
  • Zbinden, E. (1953) Die Djinn des Islam und der altorientalische Geisterglaube. Bern, Haupt.

[edit]External links

Look up genie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Jinn.

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